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情境化隐私:最高法院’诉贾维斯案的判决

| 2019年2月22日 | 未分类

随着我们社会利用新技术的发展,法院经常在追赶不断发展的社会规范,努力使新情况或新环境与现有法律框架保持一致。

在最近的情况下 R诉贾维斯, the Supreme Court recently grappled with the issue of what constitutes a 对隐私的合理期望. In this case, a high school teacher was found to have been surreptitiously recording female students, including their faces, bodies, cleavage or breasts using a pen camera. The question for the court was whether these videos were taken where the students enjoyed a 对隐私的合理期望.

对于每天的观察者来说,这种情况似乎有点不费吹灰之力。当然360直播吧一个年轻人是不可接受的’的乳房未经他们的允许。但是,问题是,关于‘对隐私的合理期望’ applies in the specific context in which these students found themselves. The accused argued that a 对隐私的合理期望 applies to circumstances in which a person has a reasonable expectation that she, or a part of her body, will not be observed 通过 others. It is true that in the case of these students, they would expect to be observed while at school. The Crown, on the other hand, argued that this interpretation focuses too much on location and not enough on the context.

And as it turns out, the Supreme Court emphasized that context does indeed matter when assessing whether a person has a 对隐私的合理期望. The Court listed a number of non-exhaustive considerations that might assist a court, which include:

–该人所在的位置;

–行为的性质(无论是观察还是360直播吧);

–意识到或同意潜在的观察或360直播吧;

–观察或360直播吧的方式;

–观察或360直播吧的主题或内容

–管理相关观察或360直播吧的任何规则,法规或政策;

–被观察或360直播吧的人与进行观察或360直播吧的人之间的关系;

–观察或360直播吧的目的;

–被观察或360直播吧的人的个人属性。

The Court also found that context of s. 8 of the Charter, which guarantees the right to be free from unreasonable search and seizure, can also inform this analysis. In other words, whether or not a person has a 对隐私的合理期望 depends on social norms of what is acceptable in society. So, given the ever-increasing sophistication of recording devices and the fact that recording devices are ubiquitous these days, we need to be aware that a person does not simply waive their privacy interests the moment that they step into public.

最终,法院裁定,鉴于年轻人录制的背景因素,在学校,老师处于信任状态,他们不同意或希望录制的地方以及存在政策的情况下,禁止此类360直播吧,因为这违反了他们对隐私的合理期望。

通过这一框架,法院得出了许多人愿意的结论。同样,有意义的是,仅仅因为年轻人在公共场所,他们就放弃了隐私权。在得出这一结论时,法院确实提供了一种更为灵活的隐私权处理方法,该方法考虑了社会规范和局势背景。鉴于大多数人会带着带录音功能的电话走来走去,因此这些背景因素非常重要,因为法院无疑将继续考虑隐私权的不断发展,并可能会导致更为细微的处理。 

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